Earth Observation Mission News
Watching the winds where the sea meets sky
13 August 2014
The ocean covers 71 percent of Earth's surface and affects weather over the entire globe. Hurricanes and storms that begin far out over the ocean affect people on land and interfere with shipping at sea. And the ocean stores carbon and heat, which are transported from the ocean to the air and back, allowing for photosynthesis and affecting Earth's climate. To understand all these processes, scientists need information about winds near the ocean's surface.
NASA's ISS-RapidScat, launching to the International Space Station this fall, will watch those winds with a tried and true instrument called a scatterometer. Since satellite scatterometers began collecting data in the 1970s, their soundings have become essential to our understanding of Earth's ocean winds.
Scatterometers send microwave pulses to Earth's surface at an angle. A smooth ocean surface reflects most of the energy like a mirror, away from the satellite, but strong waves scatter some of the signal back toward the spacecraft. From the strength of this backscatter, scientists can estimate the speed and direction of wind at the ocean's surface.
"Before scatterometers, we could only measure ocean winds on ships, and sampling from ships is very limited," said Timothy Liu of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, who led the science team for NASA's QuikScat mission.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech - SeaWinds scatterometer view of Hurricane Floyd in 1999