MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate) Expedition
Embark on the largest polar expedition in history: in September 2019, the German research icebreaker Polarstern has set sail from Tromsø, Norway, to spend a year drifting through the Arctic Ocean - trapped in ice. The goal of the MOSAiC expedition is to take the closest look ever at the Arctic as the epicenter of global warming and to gain fundamental insights that are key to better understand global climate change. 1)
Hundreds of researchers from 19 countries take part in this exceptional endeavor. Following in the footsteps of Fridtjof Nansen's ground-breaking expedition with his wooden sailing ship Fram in 1893-1896, the MOSAiC expedition will bring a modern research icebreaker close to the north pole for a full year including for the first time in polar winter. The data gathered will be used by scientists around the globe to take climate research to a completely new level. Led by atmospheric scientist Markus Rex, and co-led by Klaus Dethloff and Matthew Shupe, MOSAiC is spearheaded by Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (AWI).
Understanding the consequences of Arctic climate change:
• MOSAiC will contribute to a quantum leap in our understanding of the coupled Arctic climate system and its representation in global climate models.
• The focus of MOSAiC lies on direct in-situ observations of the climate processes that couple the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem.
An entire year trapped in the ice
The Norwegian researcher and explorer Fridtjof Nansen set sail on the first ever drift expedition 126 years ago with his wooden sailing ship Fram. But there has never been an expedition like the one now planned: for the first time, the MOSAiC project will take a modern research icebreaker laden with scientific instruments close to the North Pole in winter. 2)
The backbone of MOSAiC will be the year-round operation of RV Polarstern, drifting with the sea ice across the central Arctic during the years 2019 to 2020. During the set-up phase, RV Polarstern will enter the Siberian sector of the Arctic in thin sea ice conditions in late summer.
A distributed regional network of observational sites will be set up on the sea ice in an area of up to ~50 km distance from RV Polarstern. The ship and the surrounding network will drift with the natural ice drift across the polar cap towards the Atlantic, while the sea ice thickens during winter (red dotted line in Figure 1).
Large scale research facilities addressing key aspects of the coupled Arctic climate system will be set up on board of RV Polarstern and on the sea ice next to it, in the so-called ice camp.
The distributed regional network further around the central observatory will be comprised of autonomous and remotely-operated sensors, characterizing the heterogeneity of key processes in an area representing a typical grid box of modern climate models and providing invaluable data for the development of parametrizations for sub-grid-scale processes in climate models.
The German research aircrafts Polar 5 and Polar 6 will be operated to complement the measurements at the central MOSAiC site. A landing strip will be built especially for these research planes and for resupply flights in spring 2020.
Research and supply cruises by icebreakers from MOSAiC partners will provide support for the AWI research vessel Polarstern. They will further extend the geographical coverage of the observations and will link the measurements to the larger scales of the Arctic climate system and explore global feedbacks.
In addition, helicopters will be employed. Fuel depots for long-range helicopters have been set up on Bolshevik Island to broaden the spectrum of response options to potential emergency situations during the expedition.
Figure 1: Not only the science behind MOSAiC is a huge endeavor that needs the expertise of multiple nations and scientific disciplines, but also the logistics face unparalleled challenges (image credit: AWI).
The mission of MOSAiC 3)
MOSAiC aims at a breakthrough in understanding the Arctic climate system and in its representation in global climate models. MOSAiC will provide a more robust scientific basis for policy decisions on climate change mitigation and adaptation and for setting up a framework for managing Arctic development sustainably.
The Arctic is the key area of global climate change, with warming rates exceeding twice the global average (Figure 2) and warming during winter even larger. It is well possible that the Arctic ocean will become ice free in summer during the 21st century. This dramatic change strongly affects weather and climate on the whole northern hemisphere and fuels rapid economic development in the Arctic.
Future climate change projections for the Arctic are extremely uncertain with a factor of three uncertainty of projected warming by the end of this century – a much larger uncertainty than anywhere else on the planet (Figure 3).
Many processes in the Arctic climate system are poorly represented in climate models because they are not sufficiently understood. As long as we do not understand these processes, Arctic climate projections will not be robust.
The understanding of Arctic climate processes is limited by a dramatic lack of observations in the central Arctic, especially in winter and spring. During these seasons sea ice is so thick that even the best research icebreakers cannot penetrate into the Arctic and researchers have always been locked out.
The dramatic changes in the Arctic climate system and the fast retreat of Arctic sea ice strongly affect global climate. The inability of modern climate models to reproduce Arctic climate change is one of the most pressing problems in understanding and predicting global climate change.
MOSAiC sets out to investigate the heart of the Arctic climate system year-round – one of the largest uncharted areas in climate research.
Figure 3: For the Arctic the uncertainties of climate models are much larger than for any other part of the planet. Here projections of the warming by the end of the century range between 5º and 15º Celsius among the different models, for the same rather pessimistic greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5) which is shown here (graphic credit: AWI)
• September 24, 2019: As millions of people around the world marched for urgent action on climate change ahead of this week's UN Climate Action Summit, an icebreaker set sail from Norway to spend a year drifting in the Arctic sea ice. This extraordinary expedition is set to make a step change in climate science – and ESA is contributing with a range of experiments. 4)
With the youth calling for action, the climate crisis is in the public eye more than ever, and consequently there is more pressure to push the issue higher up the global political agenda.
The state of the climate has been detailed in a new landmark report that was produced for the summit. It says that the five-year period from 2014 to 2019 is the warmest on record and that sea-level rise has accelerated significantly over the same period as carbon dioxide emissions have hit new highs.
Needless to say, a better scientific understanding of the complexities of the fragile Arctic environment is critical for policy decisions on climate-change mitigation and adaptation, and for setting up a framework for managing Arctic development sustainably. The EU's Integrated Policy for the Arctic includes a central pillar of climate change for this reason.
The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition is about to make a major contribution to Arctic climate science.
Spearheaded by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), it is the biggest shipborne polar expedition of all time and aims to take climate research to a completely new level.
It involves the Polarstern German research icebreaker spending a year trapped and drifting in the sea ice so that scientists from around the world can study the Arctic as the epicentre of global warming and gain fundamental insights that are key to better understand global climate change.
Figure 4: The MOSAiC expedition will make a major contribution to Arctic climate science. Spearheaded by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), it is the biggest polar expedition of all time. It involves the Polarstern German research icebreaker spending a year trapped in the sea ice so that scientists from around the world can study the Arctic as the epicentre of global warming and gain fundamental insights that are key to better understand global climate change – and ESA is contributing with a range of experiments (image credit: AWI, S. Hendricks , CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO)
During each phase of this huge international expedition, roughly one hundred people will be researching, working and living on board the icebreaker as well as on the sea ice. They will face some extremely harsh conditions during the polar winter – complete darkness, storms and temperatures that can drop to –40ºC.
Christian Haas, from AWI, said, "We want to better understand the processes and energy flows between the ocean, ice and atmosphere – and how they change over the course of the seasons.
We will also compare the data with satellite data, in particular with ESA's CryoSat-2, which was specifically launched to measure ice thickness. This will allow us to observe how the ice grows and becomes thinner."
ESA's Tânia Casal said, "The MOSAiC expedition offers a unique opportunity to considerably improve our understanding of ocean–ice-snow–atmosphere processes and this will contribute to a more accurate modelling of future Arctic climate scenarios.
"We want to make sure that data associated with these processes delivered by ESA satellites and by the Copernicus Sentinels as well as from missions under development have the best possible impact. So we are contributing to the expedition with a range of calibration and validation activities.
"For example, as Dr Haas mentions that arrangements have been made for measurements to be taken that will be used to validate CryoSat-2, but also that validate the Copernicus Sentinel-1 radar mission."
ESA's Craig Donlon added, "We are currently working on new high-priority missions such as the Copernicus Imaging Microwave Radiometer (CIMR) mission and the Polar Ice and Snow Topography Altimeter (CRISTAL) mission to support the EU Integrated Policy for the Arctic. CIMR will provide high-resolution multispectral images of ocean, ice and snow properties and CRISTAL will provide estimates of sea-ice thickness. The two missions can work in perfect synergy.
"MOSAiC will give us an unprecedented time series of reference measurements to develop quality algorithms and data products from the CIMR and CRISTAL missions, which will support applications from weather forecasting to climate research, with benefit for the Copernicus services and beyond."
Dr Casal noted, "In addition, we are working with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to collect measurements from the ALOS-2 mission as part of our preparatory work on the ROSE-L mission, which is another high-priority candidate for Europe's Copernicus program, and which will work in synergy with the Copernicus Sentinel-1 C-band radar for sea-ice charting services."
ESA experiments also include ship-based instrumentation for dedicated validation measurements of the thickness of thin seasonal ice from the Earth Explorer SMOS mission.
Josef Aschbacher, Director of ESA's Earth Observation Programs, said, "The scale of MOSAiC expedition is truly remarkable and a testament to what international collaboration can achieve. Climate change is a very serious global concern, and the pioneering satellite missions we develop are key to measuring and understanding change so that informed decisions on action can be taken. This expedition gives us an important and unique opportunity to validate measurements being made from space as well as further the development of new missions on the drawing board. We wish everyone participating in MOSAiC the very best of luck – it will certainly be a challenging and harsh environment to work in."
Figure 5: Sea-ice drift. In October 2019 the research icebreaker Polarstern will drop anchor at an ice floe in the northern Laptev Sea, which will mark the beginning of the MOSAiC experiment. The ship's potential drift route can be roughly estimated in advance by reconstructing the course that the ice followed from the starting point in past years. This involves the use of satellite data, which depicts the ice drift in the Arctic on a daily basis. The image shows sample drift trajectories for 2005–17 and a potential starting point near 85ºN/130ºE. The starting date for the drift analysis is always 1 October of the respective year (image credit: AWI)
• September 20, 2019: During the MOSAiC expedition, researchers from the DLR Institute of Communications and Navigation will be measuring the disturbances of the Galileo and GPS navigation signals near the pole over a long period. "For this purpose, we have installed a high-rate receiver for navigation satellite data, one of our ‘in-house' processors for measuring scintillations and a recording device for the raw data on board Polarstern," says Simon Plass from the DLR Institute of Communications and Navigation. Scintillations are fluctuations of the electron density in Earth's ionosphere. They influence the propagation of electromagnetic radiation; this includes the signals from navigation satellites. 5)
- Particularly in the vicinity of the north and south poles, the signals from navigation satellites are subject to disturbances caused by solar activity. No real data are currently available for the development of suitable countermeasures.
- DLR is closing this gap by collecting the necessary raw data from the Galileo and GPS systems in the Arctic Ocean during the one-year-long MOSAiC polar expedition. They will then be used to develop processing and correction algorithms.
- In the harsh environment of the Arctic Ocean, it is particularly important that position determination is always precise, and that safe navigation can be guaranteed.
The team of Simon Plass will operate the processor together with colleagues from the newly founded DLR Institute for Solar-Terrestrial Physics. "This is the first time that we will have acquired such extensive data from the north polar region. They represent a unique opportunity to compare the performance of different receivers under identical, controlled conditions and to develop new signal processing algorithms," explains Plass.
The solar storm particles influence the functioning and accuracy of communications and navigation systems – particularly near Earth's poles.
The explosive eruptions of charged particles from the surface of the Sun are referred to as solar flares. They are a cause of ‘space weather' and the particles regularly interact with Earth's magnetic field. The nearer one gets to the poles, the stronger the interactions become. Two of the best-known effects are the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora Australis, fascinating natural spectacles that make the influence of the Sun on the northern and southern polar regions visible to the human eye.
Charged particles from the Sun interact with Earth's atmosphere and cause scintillations in the ionosphere. This interferes with radio signals on their way from satellites to the planet's surface. Navigation signals in particular can be influenced to such an extent that precise positioning is sometimes no longer possible. In order to develop effective countermeasures, such as correction algorithms for navigation systems, satellite data from the polar regions are required. These data are currently not available.
Figure 6: Infographic: Charged particles from the Sun interact with Earth's atmosphere and cause scintillations in the ionosphere. This interferes with radio signals on their way from satellites to the planet's surface. Navigation signals in particular can be influenced to such an extent that precise positioning is sometimes no longer possible. In order to develop effective countermeasures, such as correction algorithms for navigation systems, satellite data from the polar regions are required. These data are currently not available (graphic credit: DLR (CC-BY 3.0))
Other DLR participants in the MOSAiC Arctic expedition: In addition to the Institute of Communications and Navigation, two other DLR facilities are taking part in MOSAiC. During the expedition, the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) will be providing images derived from data acquired by the German TerraSAR-X radar mission in near-real time to support the complex expedition logistics in the sea ice. In addition to DFD's own receiving stations in Neustrelitz and Inuvik, Canada, the Kongsberg Satellite Services (KSAT) station near Longyearbyen on Spitsbergen will also be used to receive data from the satellite. This station network is suitable for making the satellite data collected over the Arctic Ocean available to the researchers on board Polarstern as soon as possible after acquisition. The data are first transmitted from the receiving stations to Neustrelitz for processing and then delivered from there.
In addition to TerraSAR-X, other radar satellites will be used for MOSAiC, such as the Canadian RADARSAT-2 and the Japanese ALOS-2. The DLR Maritime Safety and Security Lab in Bremen will be responsible for the coordination of all the satellite images and the timing of further experiments or aircraft measurements. Together with the University of Bremen, it will also use the MOSAiC mission to improve the methodology developed at DLR for distinguishing between different types of ice and to derive further properties of snow and ice cover from satellite signals in the microwave frequency range. This research is part of a separate project, 'MOSAiCmicrowaveRS', funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). In addition to the satellite data, it will use the extensive measurement facilities on the Polarstern.
RV (Research Vessel) Polarstern
For one year, she will be the center of the largest Arctic research expedition ever, spending a full annual cycle trapped in the massive Arctic ice: the Research Vessel Polarstern, flagship of Alfred Wegener Institute and icon of German as well as international Polar Research. 6)
Originally commissioned in 1982, the Polarstern is, to this day, still one of the most advanced and versatile polar research ships worldwide. Between 1999 and 2001, the ship was completely overhauled and now carries the latest equipment and technologies available. This is why she usually operates 317 days on average every year. Covering about 50,000 nautical miles per year, Polarstern carries out scientific research as well as resupplies the research stations run by the AWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) - such as the Neumayer Station III, an Antarctic base manned year-round. Until 2019, Polarstern has logged more than 1.7 million nautical miles, which equates to roughly 3.2 million km.
Figure 7: Photo of RV Polarstern (image credit: AWI)
The Polarstern and MOSAiC:
Even for the reliable Polarstern and her highly experienced crew, the MOSAiC expedition poses quite a challenge. Only thanks to her special technical details, this ship can be the center of an expedition with the dimensions of MOSAiC. Not only is Polarstern capable of operating in the pack-ice zone, but owing to her double-walled steel hull and 20,000 horsepower, she can also easily break through 1.5-meter-thick ice and overcome thicker ice by ramming. Being equipped for sustained operations at temperatures like in the Arctic winter, down to -50º Celsius, Polarstern is also capable of staying the winter in the ice of the polar seas.
However, it's not nearly so cold inside the ship, where the about 100 MOSAiC researchers, technicians and crew members work and live. In the various scientific labs, the international experts conduct research across the 5 main areas of interest ( atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, ecosystem, biogeochemistry). For MOSAiC, this set-up will be complemented with specific scientific equipment, instruments and lab containers, and even a special additional crane has been installed.
In addition, Polarstern has various vehicles (helicopters, snowmobiles, Pistenbullies, etc.) on board, allowing the researchers to take measurements and gather data not only in the central observatory but also in the distant Distributed Network. The cutting-edge onboard computer system ensures that all scientific data are regularly recorded, saved and forwarded.
Table 1: Facts and figures of the RV Polarstern
• October 4, 2019: MOSAiC expedition begins its ice drift on a floe at 85 degrees north and 137 degrees east. — After only a few days of searching, experts from the MOSAiC expedition have now found a suitable ice floe, where they will set up the research camp for their one-year-long drift through the Arctic Ocean. Consequently, one of the most important milestones in the expedition has been reached ahead of schedule, and before the Polar Night falls. Nevertheless, the search, which involved satellite imagery, two icebreakers, helicopter flights and scouting missions on the surface of the ice, was an enormous challenge – partly because, after the warm summer, there were very few sufficiently thick floes in the expedition's start region. 7)
- The die is cast: The MOSAiC team has now selected the floe that will serve as the base of operations for their one-year-long ice drift around the North Pole with the German research icebreaker Polarstern. This was preceded by an intensive search combining satellite imagery and helicopter flights over the target area in the Central Arctic, which were supported by the icebreaker Akademik Fedorov, operated by Russia's Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI). The participating researchers closely examined 16 floes that, on the basis of satellite imagery, were potentially large enough to accommodate the ice camp. They subsequently met on board Polarstern to compare their findings, ultimately agreeing that the ice drift should be prepared for on a floe measuring roughly 2.5 by 3.5 km, and located at 85 degrees north and 137 degrees east. The floe, which Polarstern will allow herself to become frozen to, is currently drifting in alternating directions, at up to 10 km/day.
- "After a brief but intensive search, we've found our home for the months to come. The ice floe is characterized by an unusually stable area, which we are confident can serve as a good basis and point of departure for establishing a complex research camp. Other parts of the floe are typical of the new Arctic, which is home to thinner, less stable ice. And precisely this combination makes it very well suited to our scientific projects. After carefully reviewing all relevant data, including that from our Russian partners, we came to the conclusion: it may not be the perfect floe, but it's the best one in this part of the Arctic, and offers better working conditions than we could have expected after a warm Arctic summer," explains MOSAiC expedition leader Markus Rex of AWI. "We'll have to wait and see if it's also stable enough to withstand the autumnal storms that are now brewing. But we're prepared for all scenarios," he adds.
Figure 8: Polarstern arrives at a potent ice floe. After comprehensive measurements, the involved scientists decided it to be the MOSAiC ice floe, with the location 85ºN 137ºE on 30 September 2019 (photo credit: AWI, Esther Horvath)
- On 28 September the first researchers from Polarstern set foot on the floe, which had long been a preferred candidate thanks to the promising analyses of the satellite data. On the radar images produced by the satellites, the dark, nearly oval floe stood out thanks to a large, bright region in its northern section. This clearly set it apart from all of the other potential floes, which were consistently dark in the radar images. In the meantime, the experts have dubbed this region ‘the fortress': made up of highly compressed, several-meter-thick ice, it offers higher stability and a solid basis for the ice camp, which will be erected far above it. In contrast, the darker regions, which are riddled with frozen-over meltwater pools and thin, porous and less stable ice, are typical representatives of the ice conditions in the new Arctic. Here the ice thickness is ca. 30 cm near the freshly frozen-over pools, and between 60 and 150 cm in the older ice between them, although here, too, the bottommost 30 to 40 cm of the ice are extremely porous and less stable.
Figure 9: Polarstern (left) and Akademik Fedorov (right) dock next to each other(photo credit: AWI, Esther Horvath)
- The researchers were unable to determine the floe's makeup using satellite imagery alone; it took several days and nights of intensive work on the floe itself to gather the requisite data for making a sound choice. In this context, they used an electromagnetic sensor, which they hauled over the ice on foot or with a Skidoo, to map the ice thickness. Ice core samples also yielded data to help assess the ice's structure. Working in the dark, and in unfamiliar territory, posed a serious challenge. These efforts were coordinated and monitored with infrared cameras from Polarstern's bridge. Further, members of the expedition's polar bear patrol accompanied the researchers on the ice to ensure their safety.
- In a final step, a helicopter-mounted laser scanner was used to create a three-dimensional model of the floe's surface. This map, created during the scouting phase, will help the experts plan the next step: setting up the ice camp. Time won't be on their side: starting today, the sun will no longer rise over the horizon, and there will only be a few more days with partial light at noon.
- The MOSAiC expedition, spearheaded by AWI, entails a number of unprecedented challenges. The project has an overall budget of ~ 140 million euros. In the course of the one-year-long drift, ~300 experts hailing from 17 countries will be on board. Their common goal: to investigate for the first time the entire climate system in the Central Arctic. To do so, they will gather data on five major aspects – Atmosphere, Sea Ice, Ocean, Ecosystem and Biogeochemistry – in an effort to better understand the interactions that shape the Arctic climate and life in the Arctic Ocean.
Figure 10: First group of scientists lands on an ice floe. Gunnar Spreen (left) and Matthew Shupe (right) examine a potential ice floe for MOSAiC on 30 September 2019, (photo credit: AWI, Esther Horvath)
•September 21, 2019: The most ambitious research expedition ever to target the central Arctic got underway as the German icebreaker RV Polarstern pulled out of Tromsø on 20 September 2019, destined for an ice floe where it will serve as a drifting base for hundreds of scientists during the next 13 months. 8)
- More than 10 years after NOAA/CIRES scientist Matthew Shupe of the NOAA ESRL/PSD (Earth System Research Laboratory/Physical Science Division) conceived of the idea, the Multidisciplinary Drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) has become a $150 million voyage of discovery led by the Alfred Wegener Institute, with significant funding by the US. Department of Energy and other US agencies. More than 400 scientists from 19 countries, including some of the world's top Arctic researchers, will participate.
- The expedition is led by Germany's Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), with key support from the U.S.'s CIRES (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences) at the University of Colorado Boulder and NOAA ERSL/PSD (Earth System Research Laboratory/ Physical Science Division). Overall, 17 nations are involved; the U.S. represents the second largest national contribution with funding support from NOAA, NSF, DOE, and NASA. 9)
- PSD and CIRES scientists have been heavily involved in MOSAiC since the beginning, including developing the initial concept for a year-long, multi-disciplinary project in the Arctic sea ice; playing the chief editorial role for the MOSAiC Science Plan; serving in many leadership roles; implementing multiple science projects; and engaging in outreach and communications activities.
Years of planning help ease a hectic departure
- This is the first time a modern research icebreaker will operate in the direct vicinity of the North Pole year-round, including the nearly six-month long polar night during winter. In terms of the logistical challenges involved, the total number of participants, the number of participating countries, and the available budget, MOSAiC represents the largest Arctic expedition in history. "It's really amazing to see all the composure here during a really stressful time," said Shupe, the U.S co-lead on the massive expedition, as dozens of scientists worked to install equipment on board just hours before Polarstern's departure. "I am really energized by all these people and energy moving in the same direction. I see this around every corner of the ship."
- Researchers will be conducting experiments and collecting data from the atmosphere, ice and ocean with instruments on board the Polarstern, and from locations up to several miles away, to explore the physical, chemical, and biological processes that drive the Arctic atmosphere, sea ice, ocean, and ecosystem. Results from the mission will help scientists improve models and forecasts of local, regional, and global weather and climate.
Figure 11: Some of the PSD team in Tromsø, Norway, (L-R) Chris Cox, Matt Shupe, Byron Blomquist, Sara Morris (Photo credit: Sara Morris, CIRES)
First challenge: Where do you park an icebreaker?
- After departing Tromsø, 350 miles north of the Arctic Circle, the ship will position itself so that it freezes into drifting ice as the polar night descends. Research during the roughly six months of darkness will present challenges on top of those delivered by the frigid Arctic winter. Special lights, night-vision goggles to watch for polar bears, and activities designed to maintain a healthy daily schedule in the close confines of the ship are some of the adaptations scientists will have to make.
Figure 12: The German icebreaker Polarstern will serve as the hub of a floating base camp for hundreds of scientists studying the Arctic during the year-long expedition. To learn more about the logistics of the mission, visit: https://www.mosaic-expedition.org/expedition/ice-camp/ (image credit: AWI). The expedition will be resupplied by four icebreakers from Sweden, Russia and China.
- As soon as the Polarstern has dropped anchor at an ice floe, a small city appears on the surface of the ice. Though the MOSAiC researchers don't live there, it is where they conduct much of their research.
- And they do so using a carefully planned structure: just as blacksmiths, potters and other artisans each had their own district back in the Middle Ages, in the ‘Ice Camp' meteorologists and climate researchers, marine biologists and specialists for snow, sea ice and other disciplines work together in smaller camps of their own, which are also home to the specific equipment they need.
What happens in the Arctic doesn't stay in the Arctic
- For the Alfred Wegener Institute's Markus Rex, leader of the MOSAiC expedition, the Arctic is the "kitchen" for weather in the northern hemisphere. Extreme weather conditions like outbreaks of cold Arctic air in winter, or heat waves in summer, are linked to the changes in the Arctic, he said. Given that Arctic change is likely to have a global impact, research to improve climate models is of utmost importance.
- "There aren't any reliable prognoses of how the Arctic climate will develop further or what that will mean for our weather," said Rex. "Our mission is to change that."
• September 20, 2019: After a decade of preparations, it's finally time: this evening at 8:30 p.m. the German icebreaker Polarstern will depart from the Norwegian port of Tromsø. Escorted by the Russian icebreaker Akademik Fedorov, she will set sail for the Central Arctic. On board researchers will investigate a region that is virtually inaccessible in winter, and which is crucial for the global climate. They will gather urgently needed data on the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, as well as on the ecosystem. Thanks to the collaboration between international experts, the one-year-long ice drift past the North Pole will take climate research to a completely new level. 10)
1) "MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate)," AWI, 2019, URL: https://www.mosaic-expedition.org/
3) "The Mission," URL: https://www.mosaic-expedition.org/science/mission/
4) "A year trapped in Arctic ice for climate science," ESA, 24 September 2019, URL: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/
5) "MOSAiC Arctic expedition – DLR measurement technology for navigation signals will freeze with the Polarstern research vessel in the Arctic Ocean," DLR, 20 September 2019, URL: https://www.dlr.de/content/en/articles/news/2019/03/20190920_dlr-messtechnik-friert-mit-polarstern-im-nordpolarmeer-ein-en.html
6) "RV Polarstern," AWI, 2019, URL: https://www.mosaic-expedition.org/expedition/polarstern/
7) "A fortress of ice and snow," AWI Press Release, 4 October 2019, URL: https://www.awi.de/en/about-us/service/press/
8) "A Year Locked in Ice: Unprecedented international expedition to explore the central Arctic gets underway," 21 September 2019, ERSL/PSD, URL: https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/news/2019/092019.html
10) "This Evening Sees the Start of MOSAiC – the Greatest Arctic Research Expedition of All Time," AWI Press Release, 20 September 2019, URL: https://www.awi.de/en/about-us/service/press/press-release/this-evening-sees-
The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: "Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors" (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates (email@example.com).