Minimize ISS: Sample Imagery

ISS Utilization: Sample imagery taken by astronauts on and from the ISS + Events

References 

This file is a loose collection of some imagery samples taken by astronauts off and from the ISS (International Space Station). Astronauts who experience Earth from orbit often report feelings of awe and wonder, of being transformed by what they describe as the magic such a perspective brings. This phenomenon is called the ”overview effect.” The short descriptions in the following entries are presented in reverse order .


Note: As of April 7, 2022, the previously large ISS-Imagery2021 and ISS-Imagery files have been split into seven files, to make the file handling manageable for all parties concerned, in particular for the user community.

This article covers the ISS-Imagery plus some status in the period 2022

ISS-Imagery in the period 2021

ISS-Imagery in the period 2020

ISS-Imagery in the period 2019

ISS-Imagery in the period 2018

ISS-Imagery in the period 2017-2016

ISS-Imagery in the period 2015-1998



Mission status and sample imagery of 2022

• May 8, 2022: From an astronaut’s perspective, the wetlands along the northwest coast of the Yucatán Peninsula are arrayed in distinct colors. This photograph, taken from the International Space Station (ISS), captures the diversity of the estuarian landscape near Celestún, a fishing village in Yucatán, Mexico. 1)

- Dark green mangrove forests surround Ria Celestún and are interwoven between smaller estuaries reaching toward the Gulf of Mexico. The ebb and flow of ocean currents suspends and resuspends sediments here, giving the shallow, brackish estuaries hues of orange and reddish-brown.

- Inland, the dissolution and collapse of limestone bedrock help form sinkholes called cenotes. These geologic features are a type of karst topography that forms when carbonic acid in groundwater dissolves calcium carbonate in the rocks. These porous limestone sinkholes filter salt out of seawater, creating reservoirs that have been used as freshwater resources since the Mayan Civilization.

- The cenotes of the Yucatán Peninsula form along the buried rim of Chixculub Crater, outlining the deep scar left behind from an ancient asteroid or comet impact. In 2021, NASA’s Terra satellite captured a wider view of the ring of cenotes.

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Figure 1: Astronaut photograph ISS066-E-43471 was acquired on October 30, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 200 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 66 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Amber Turner)

• April 24, 2022: An astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) took this photograph of the Pontal do Paranapanema region of south-central Brazil. 2)

- Created in 1986, the Morro do Diabo State Park of São Paulo preserves about 34,000 hectares (84,000 acres) of a native, semi-deciduous forest ecosystem. South of the park, the Paranapanema River forms the border between São Paulo and Paraná states. (Note that north is to the lower left in this ISS view.)

- In addition to serving as a physical border, the Paranapanema is a tributary to the Paraná River, merging just outside the bottom right of the photo. Over the past three decades, since the completion of the Motta Dam, the Paraná has progressively widened. Construction of the dam resulted in many geomorphological and ecological changes to the river. 3)

- Much of Brazil, including this part of the São Paulo state, has undergone extensive clearing of native vegetation to create space for agriculture. This shift toward agriculture began nearly a century ago and led to the lighter hued, geometrically shaped pastures and farms visible throughout this area.

- One consequence of this deforestation has been a rapid decline in habitat for native animal and plant species. Recent conservation efforts—including the creation of the Morro do Diabo State Park—have attempted to limit further forest fragmentation and preserve remaining native habitats for bird and mammal species such as the endangered black lion tamarin.

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Figure 2: Human activity and natural beauty merge in south-central Brazil. This astronaut photograph ISS066-E-87419 was acquired on December 7, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 200 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 66 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Cadan Cummings)

• April 18, 2022: Russian cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev and Denis Matveev of Roscosmos concluded their spacewalk at 5:37 p.m. EDT today after 6 hours and 37 minutes. 4)

- Artemyev and Matveev completed their major objectives for today in which they installed and connected a control panel for the European Robotic Arm (ERA), a 37-foot-long (11 m) manipulator system mounted to the recently arrived Nauka multipurpose laboratory module. They also removed protective covers from the arm and installed handrails on Nauka. The arm will be used to move spacewalkers and payloads around the Russian segment of the station.

- This was the fourth spacewalk in Artemyev’s career, and the first for Matveev. It will be the fourth spacewalk at the station in 2022 and the 249th spacewalk for space station assembly, maintenance, and upgrades.

- During the next Russian spacewalk scheduled for Thursday, April 28, the duo will jettison thermal blankets used to protect the arm during its July 2021 launch with Nauka. They will also flex the arm’s joints, release launch restraints, and monitor the arm’s ability to use two grapple fixtures.

- Additional spacewalks are planned to continue outfitting the European robotic arm and to activate Nauka’s airlock for future spacewalks.

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Figure 3: Spacewalkers Oleg Artemyev and Denis Matveev configure new robotic arm components on the Nauka multipurpose laboratory module (image credit: NASA TV)

• April 17, 2022: An astronaut took this near-nadir photograph of one of Asia’s largest rivers, the Brahmaputra. The mighty river appears as two major channels; several small islands sit within them and a large island separates them. Together they form a Brahmaputra floodplain that measures fully 10 km (6 miles) in width. The channels appear brighter than those of the other rivers in this photo because they are near the Sun’s glint point. 5)

- Two big tributaries, the Dibang and Lohit Rivers, flow nearby and join the Brahmaputra just outside the photo to the left. (The flow of the rivers in this scene is broadly west.) The Brahmaputra eventually joins the Ganges River in Bangladesh about 850 km (525 miles) to the southwest, and both empty into the Bay of Bengal. The Brahmaputra is Asia’s second largest river by discharge, after the Changjiang River in China. As measured at its confluence with the Ganges, the Brahmaputra River discharges 612 billion m3/year, or 135 trillion gallons.

- South Asia’s monsoon rainfall regime brings heavy rain to this part of India from March through June, feeding the river and floodplain. Tropical forest is the natural vegetation of this landscape.

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Figure 4: This astronaut photograph ISS063-E-19838 was acquired on May 28, 2020, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 500 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 63 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)

- Human-built features seem minuscule here compared to the river channels. Most of the area includes land under cultivation, which appears as numerous small and irregular plots. Farms along the riverbanks are especially prone to damage and destruction by floods and by the persistent erosion of the banks. Linear features include roads and a 4 km (2.4 mile) long bridge crossing the Lohit River.

- Note, however, that the sector of the Brahmaputra floodplain (top left) displays no agricultural plots. It is a protected natural area within the Daying Ering (also known as D’Ering) Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary.

• April 14, 2022: On 23 March 2022, ESA astronaut Matthias Maurer successfully performed his first extravehicular activity (EVA) alongside fellow NASA astronaut Raja Chari. The spacewalk, dubbed "US EVA 80", was carried out in support of assembly, refurbishment and maintenance work on the International Space Station. 6)

Figure 5: In this video, Matthias Maurer answers questions and reports on his experiences, feelings and the challenges he faced during his almost seven-hour-long spacewalk(video credit: ESA/NASA)

- During his Cosmic Kiss mission, Matthias Maurer will live and work aboard the International Space Station for approximately six months, conducting and supporting more than 35 European and numerous other international experiments in orbit.

• April 10, 2022: The waters around the port town of Torrevieja, Spain, appear like wells in a watercolor palette—the distinct colors resulting from varying aquatic environments. In this photograph taken by an astronaut on the International Space Station (ISS), the blues of the Mediterranean Sea contrast with the pink and green hues of La Mata and Torrevieja salt lagoons. Sunglint further alters the appearance of all three water bodies, painting portions white with reflections of the Sun. 7)

- The larger Torrevieja Lagoon is hypersaline and gets its pink hue from salt-loving algae such as Dunaliella salina, a microorganism found in saltwater basins worldwide. The smaller neighboring lagoon, La Mata, has less salt due to freshwater runoff from nearby mountains. A salt factory is located on the southeastern margin of the Torrevieja Lagoon. These lagoons produce hundreds of tons of salt every year and have fueled much of the local economy for centuries.

- Along the southern borders of the lagoons, nature preserves provide refuge to migratory and native birds, including the Greater Flamingo, Northern Gannet, and Spanish Sparrow. Brine shrimp live in the lagoons and are a food source for the birds. These preserves are Ramsar sites, which are internationally recognized conservation wetland areas.

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Figure 6: The astronaut photograph ISS065-E-93005 was acquired on June 7, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 1150 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 65 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, Caption by Alex Stoken)

• April 7, 2022: Celebrated each year on 7 April, 'World Health Day' shines a light on a health topic of concern. This year all eyes, including ESA astronaut Matthias Maurer’s, are on the health of our planet Earth. 8)

- From on board the International Space Station 400 km above Earth, Matthias has a unique overview of our planet. Beautiful yet fragile, resilient yet under threat, our third rock from the Sun nevertheless needs looking after.

- Matthias Maurer's work in space during Cosmic Kiss reinforces this. Besides taking numerous photos of Earth from space that compliment data taken by Earth observation satellites, he is also running many experiments exploring human health in space that benefits those on Earth.

- One such experiment is the joint ESA and German Aerospace Center’s Retinal Diagnostics project that monitors astronaut eyes while in space.

- Developed by young researchers from ESA’s Spaceship EAC (European Astronaut Centre) initiative, the project uses images of astronauts’ optical discs in space to train an artificially intelligent (AI) model. This model will be used to automatically detect changes in the optic nerve of astronauts, known as Space-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS).

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Figure 7: Matthias uses an ophthalmic lens attached to a tablet camera to take images of his retina to send to experts on the ground. The app is so compact and easy to use that it can be used for remote examinations of patients in remote locations on Earth, so that everyone can keep an eye on their retinal health (image credit: NASA/ESA¬–M. Maurer)

• April 3, 2022: Orange-hued dunes mantle dark sandstone on the northern edge of Algeria’s Tassili n’Ajjer National Park in this photo from an Earth-facing external camera mounted on the International Space Station. The park’s name translates to “plateau of chasms,” and these signature ravines wind through the rock in the right of the image. On the left, wisps of cloud overlie a dune field that has swept over the low-lying regions north of the Fadnoun Plateau. 9)

- Rising to elevations of over 1,500 meters (4,900 feet) on average, the current plateau has been shaped by thousands of years of water and wind erosion. Though the area is now hyper-arid, ancient rivers once cut narrow canyons almost 240 meters (800 feet) deep into the sandstone as they flowed north toward lakes that filled what are now large dune fields called ergs (“sand seas”). Issaouane Erg, shown above, contains some of the tallest star dunes on Earth. Another erosional feature is the “forest of rock,” large pillars of resistant sandstone that have remained as strong winds eroded the softer surrounding rock.

- The town of Illizi, home to more than 17,000 people, stands at the northern edge of the plateau and continues a chain of human habitation in the region that dates back to 10,000 BCE. Rock engravings mark this long history and have made the plateau a rich area of study for archeologists and anthropologists.

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Figure 8: This EHDC (External High Definition Camera) photograph ISS064-E-11821 was acquired on December 11, 2020, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 100 mm focal length and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by an externally-mounted camera on the ISS during Expedition 64. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Alex Stoken)

• March 30, 2022: After extending the record for the longest single spaceflight in history by an American to 355 days, NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei returned to Earth on Wednesday, March 30, along with Roscosmos cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Pyotr Dubrov. 10)

- The trio departed the International Space Station at 3:21 a.m. EDT and made a safe, parachute-assisted landing at 7:28 a.m. (5:28 p.m. Kazakhstan time) southeast of the remote town of Dzhezkazgan, Kazakhstan.

- "Mark's mission is not only record-breaking, but also paving the way for future human explorers on the Moon, Mars, and beyond," said NASA Administrator Bill Nelson. "Our astronauts make incredible sacrifices in the name of science, exploration, and cutting-edge technology development, not least among them time away from loved ones. NASA and the nation are proud to welcome Mark home and grateful for his incredible contributions throughout his year-long stay on the International Space Station."

- Vande Hei’s extended mission will provide researchers the opportunity to observe the effects of long-duration spaceflight on humans as the agency plans to return to the Moon under the Artemis program and prepare for exploration of Mars.

- Vande Hei launched April 9, 2021, alongside Russian cosmonauts Oleg Novitskiy and Pyotr Dubrov. His second journey into space of 355 days is the longest single spaceflight by a U.S. astronaut, previously held at 340 days, and gives him a lifetime total of 523 days in space. Dubrov also remained onboard for 355 days on his first spaceflight.

- Supporting NASA’s goals for future human landings on the Moon, Vande Hei completed approximately 5,680 orbits of the Earth and a journey of more than 150 million miles, roughly the equivalent of 312 trips to the Moon and back. He witnessed the arrival of 15 visiting spacecraft and new modules, and the departure of 14 visiting spacecraft.

- Following post-landing medical checks, the crew will return to the recovery staging city in Karaganda, Kazakhstan, aboard Russian helicopters. Vande Hei will board a NASA plane bound for Cologne, Germany, for refueling prior to his return home. Shkaplerov and Dubrov will board a Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center aircraft to return to their home in Star City, Russia.

- During his record mission, Vande Hei spent many hours on scientific activities aboard the space station, conducting everything from plant research to physical sciences studies.

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Figure 9: NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei is seen outside the Soyuz MS-19 spacecraft after he landed with Russian cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Pyotr Dubrov in a remote area near the town of Dzhezkazgan, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, March 30, 2022. Vande Hei and Dubrov are returning to Earth after logging 355 days in space as members of Expeditions 64-66 aboard the International Space Station. For Vande Hei, his mission is the longest single spaceflight by a U.S. astronaut in history. Shkaplerov is returning after 176 days in space, serving as a Flight Engineer for Expedition 65 and commander of Expedition 66 (image credits: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

- With the undocking of the Soyuz MS-19 spacecraft with Vande Hei, Shkaplerov, and Dubrov aboard, Expedition 67 officially began aboard the station. NASA astronaut Tom Marshburn recently took over as station commander, and is joined by NASA astronauts Raja Chari and Kayla Barron, ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Matthias Maurer, and Roscosmos cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev, Denis Matveev, and Sergey Korsakov.

- Marshburn, Chari, Barron and Maurer will remain onboard until late April, when NASA astronauts Kjell Lindgren, Bob Hines, and Jessica Watkins, as well as ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti launch to the station as part of NASA’s SpaceX Crew-4 mission.

• March 26, 2022: An astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) took this near-nadir (almost straight down) photograph of Mount Everest. Such imagery provides a unique perspective on Earth’s tallest mountain (on dry land), which towers approximately 8848 meters (29,029 feet) above sea level. 11)

- This world-renowned summit sits on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau—a region sometimes called the “Roof of the World.” Everest continues to rise skyward by approximately 1 centimeter per year due to the progressive uplift of the crust caused by the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates.

- Many glaciers flow down from the high snow-covered peaks on the plateau. As glaciers descend to lower and warmer elevations, much of the moving ice mass becomes obscured by rock debris (known as moraines) that accumulates on the top, sides, and terminus of the ice. As the glaciers melt, debris entrained in the ice can be deposited as sediments that geologists call glacial till.

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Figure 10: The highest mountain on Earth takes on a different perspective from the vantage point of space. The astronaut photograph ISS066-E-86253 was acquired on December 12, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 400 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 66 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Amber Turner)

• March 20, 2022: While passing over the Rocky Mountains, an astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) took this oblique photograph of the San Luis Valley along the border of Colorado and New Mexico. The light-colored dunes of Great Sand Dunes National Park stand at the base of the Sangre de Christo Mountains. 12)

- Located on the east side of the San Juan Mountains (north is to the left in the photo), the San Luis Valley started forming millions of years ago. Extended cycles of erosion and volcanic extrusion resulted in the formation of the basin.

- Extinct volcanoes speckle the southern margin of the valley—an area known as the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field. Free-standing mountains in the volcanic field, such as San Antonio and Ute, are lava domes that were formed during eruptions almost 3 million years ago.

- Originating in the San Juan Mountains, the Rio Grande flows through the center of the valley and continues south toward the Gulf of Mexico. The river has provided water and irrigation to people in the American Southwest for thousands of years, including the community of Native Americans that live in Taos. Agriculture in the area is dominated by potatoes, lettuce, spinach, and quinoa.

- Since the 1960s, NASA has brought astronauts to the Taos Plateau for training in rock sampling and field geology and for practicing lunar-like surface operations. First visited during the Apollo era, the area is still a primary field training area for astronaut candidates. The San Luis Valley served as a planetary analog for the Apollo 15 lunar landing site at Hadley Rille. The southern area of the valley contains igneous rock structures similar to those on the lunar surface. Such field training prepares current and future astronauts for exploration of the Moon and Mars.

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Figure 11: The astronaut photograph ISS066-E-84577 was acquired on November 30, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 125 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 66 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Sara Schmidt)

• March 15, 2022: NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei arrived at the International Space Station on April 9, 2021, and is expected to return home March 30, 2022, after spending 355 days in low-Earth orbit. This duration breaks the previous record, held by retired NASA astronaut Scott Kelly, by 15 days. 13)

- Vande Hei will return in a Soyuz spacecraft as scheduled alongside cosmonauts Pyotr Dubrov and Anton Shkaplerov.

- While clocking the single longest spaceflight by a NASA astronaut, Vande Hei contributed to dozens of studies from the hundreds executed during his mission, including six science investigations supported by NASA’s Human Research Program (HRP).

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Figure 12: Aboard the International Space Station, NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei squeezes in time to unwind with a book. Vande Hei made it into record books on Tuesday, March 15, 2022, breaking the record for the most consecutive days in space by an American explorer (image credits: NASA/ESA/T. Pesquet)

- "Our astronauts are incredible explorers helping expand our knowledge of how humans can live and work in space for longer periods of time,” said NASA Administrator Bill Nelson. “Mark’s record-setting mission and his contributions to science are paving the way for more people to travel to space on longer duration missions as the agency pushes the boundaries of exploration to the Moon and Mars. Thank you for your service, Mark, and congratulations!"

- For one investigation, Vande Hei helped grow and evaluate vegetables harvested with the space station’s Vegetable Production System, or Veggie. The investigation seeks to develop a food production system that can help astronauts meet their dietary needs with fresh vegetables cultivated in space.

- Vande Hei also provided biological samples for an investigation that collects a core set of measurements, called Spaceflight Standard Measures. The investigation seeks to characterize “normal” changes in the human body during spaceflight. For instance, wrist-worn sensors that measure activity levels and light exposure can help researchers better understand the sleep-wake cycle of astronauts. Blood and saliva samples collected by crew members throughout their mission can also help scientists assess changes in various hormones, proteins, and cells that reveal how the immune system changes in space.

- In addition, he contributed to a separate investigation collecting biological samples from the crew aboard the space station and placing them in a storage bank. Researchers can draw upon the samples to study spaceflight-induced changes in human physiology.

- Vande Hei also participated in the first formal investigation into how eating repetitive meals in spaceflight changes the appeal of certain foods over time. In space, menu fatigue can have serious consequences, including lost appetites, nutritional deficiencies, and loss of body mass. Results will help researchers improve the design of current and future space food systems.

- He is also the first astronaut on an extended mission to help researchers investigate whether an enhanced spaceflight diet can allow humans to better adapt to space. Scientists seek answers to questions such as: Could a diet packed with foods rich in nutrients such as flavonoids, lycopene, and omega-3 fatty acids boost immunity and gut microbe function on long journeys into space?

- After he lands, Vande Hei will provide additional feedback to researchers investigating potential injuries such as bruises incurred by astronauts from the force of landing. This feedback will help scientists better understand whether long-term human spaceflight makes crew members more susceptible to such injuries. Results will also help NASA design protective measures in future spacecraft.

- Vande Hei’s contributions will expand NASA’s knowledge about how the human body adapts to long-term spaceflight as the agency plans for future missions to the Moon and Mars. Until then, taking time to relax and read will help him balance out the rigors of space travel.

Figure 13: NASA astronaut answers social media questions about record breaking spaceflight (video credit: youtube) 14)

• March 1, 2022: Segments of the International Space Station. 15)

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Figure 14: A side view of the International Space Station showing its different elements and the space agencies behind their development and operation (image credit: ESA–K. Oldenburg)

• February 28, 2022: Europe’s Columbus laboratory is a hive of activity in this 360° timelapse as ESA astronaut Matthias Maurer works on an experiment called Fluidics and his NASA colleague Raja Chari carries out activity in the Veggie plant habitat. 16)

- Developed by French space agency CNES and co-funded by Airbus, the Fluidics experiment investigates how liquids behave in space. It was first run by ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet in 2017 during his Proxima mission.

- Made up of six small, transparent spheres housed in the black centrifuge seen here, the experiment studies two phenomena. The first is ‘sloshing’ or how liquids move in enclosed spaces. The second is wave turbulence.

Figure 15: Fluidics is just one of many European and international science experiments Matthias is supporting throughout his six-month Cosmic Kiss mission. Visit the Cosmic Kiss mission page on the ESA portal to find out more about his activities in orbit (video credit: ESA)

- Understanding the underlying physics of how liquids move in space will help improve the fuel economy of spacecraft and our knowledge of Earth’s oceans. By observing how surface forces behave in reduced gravity and singling out interactions, scientists aim to improve climate models for forecasting sea states and better understand wave formation on Earth.

• February 26, 2022: An astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) took this photograph of South Island, New Zealand—also designated by the Māori name ‘Te Waipounamu’ by the New Zealand Geographic Board. The island’s snowcapped Southern Alps poked through wispy winter clouds that also hovered over the sea surface. 17)

- Stretching hundreds of kilometers across South Island, the Southern Alps form a spine of white that contrasts with the surrounding green and brown landscape. The highest peak in the mountain range, known as Aoraki Mount Cook, rises approximately 3,750 meters (12,300 feet) above sea level. The elevation of the range creates a rain-shadow effect east of the mountain range (left in this south-facing view). The mountains and their foothills on the west side experience frequent rain and snowfall year-round, while the downwind (east side) of these peaks have a more arid climate and many cloud-free days.

- South Island is also marked by the Alpine Fault, the major surface expression of the boundary between the Indo-Australian and the Pacific tectonic plates. The central section of the fault runs the length of South Island. As the plates progressively converge, the Southern Alps should continue to rise skyward over time.

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Figure 16: The astronaut photograph ISS063-E-52878 was acquired on July 13, 2020, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 50 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 63 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image caption by Amber Turner)

• February 21, 2022: This oblique image looking eastward toward the sunlight of dawn was taken by an External High-Definition Camera (EHDC) on the International Space Station. The station was orbiting over the northwest Atlantic Ocean, about 500 km (300 miles) off the coast off Nova Scotia. Numerous small clouds cover the foreground of the image. Each cloud represents in visible form (due to water droplets) a rising column of air. These are known as towering cumulus clouds. 18)

- Some very large thunderstorms appear toward the background of the photo, and several have extensive “table-top” features known as anvil clouds. These flat cloud surfaces develop when rising air reaches a level in the atmosphere where it is prevented from rising further (known as an inversion layer). At this level the cloud is forced to expand sideways, thus developing an anvil shape that can spread horizontally for tens of kilometers. Two of the towering cumulus near the center of the photo have just reached this altitude and have begun to spread out horizontally.

- The image captures fine details of the cloud structures because the camera was looking partly towards the light source. This photographic technique reveals the cloud shadows, and this contrasts strongly with the brighter cloud tops. The shadows also contrast with the light of dawn reflected off the sea surface.

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Figure 17: Looking toward the rising Sun, this ISS External High-Definition Camera (EHDC) photograph ISS066-E-37532 was acquired on November 4, 2021, with a D4 Electronic Still Camera using a focal length of 600 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by an externally-mounted camera on the ISS during Expedition 66. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)

• February 14, 2022: While in orbit over Egypt, an astronaut on the International Space Station (ISS) captured a photograph of this heart-shaped basin bordering the Nile River and the Western Desert. The depression, known as the Faiyum Oasis, spreads across more than 1,200 km2 (450 square miles) and was formed from the ancient lakebed of Lake Moeris. 19)

- Partial damming of Lake Moeris during the reign of Ptolemy II allowed large areas of fertile alluvial soil to be reclaimed for agriculture. Today saltwater Lake Qarun (Birket Qarun), located on the northern margin of the depression, is the remnant of Moeris. The salinity of Lake Qarun is caused by high evaporation rates in the arid climate.

- Farms and orchards fill the depression and line the western banks of the Nile. The numerous small gray patches are villages and towns in the intensively cultivated agricultural areas. The area has supported human life for more than 8,000 years and provides resources to many bird and fish species, as well as the endangered slender horned gazelle.

- Bahr Yussef, which connects the Nile to the Faiyum Oasis, originally formed as a natural offshoot of the river. In 2300 BC, it was widened and deepened into a canal to help regulate flow to the oasis. The canal transports freshwater and sediment to the area before emptying into Lake Qarun.

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Figure 18: This astronaut photograph ISS065-E-66742 was acquired on May 25, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 100 millimeters. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 65 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Sara Schmidt)

• February 11, 2022: ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet shows how space technologies and research onboard the International Space Station are used for the benefit of people on Earth. Thomas explains how space research is relevant to three of the United Nation’s goals: Health (SDG3), Zero hunger and food security (SDG2), and Climate action (SDG13). The Sustainable Development Goals are the world's to-do list for people and the planet by 2030. 20)

Figure 19: We explore - you benefit: Health, food, and climate (video credit: ESA)

• February 6, 2022: The small islands of the central Pacific Ocean often attract the attention of International Space Station (ISS) astronauts as they fly over the largest expanse of water on Earth. This photograph shows the small atoll of Maiao (also spelled Mai’ao), which lies 4,000 km (2,500 miles) due south of Hawai’i in the Society Islands. The better-known islands in this south-central Pacific chain include Tahiti, 100 km (60 miles) to the east, and Bora Bora, 160 km (100 miles) to the northwest. Measureing less than 6 km (3.6 miles) from north to south, Maiao has a land area of 8.8 km2 (3.4 square miles) and a population of about 350 people. 21)

- Maiao is entirely surrounded by a coral reef, which encloses a bright blue tidal lagoon along the southern shoreline. The two greener interior lakes, Roto Iti and Roto Rahi, are almost entirely cut off from the sea. They have become hypersaline—saltier than seawater—as a result of evaporation. Salt-loving organisms thrive in such lakes and contain pigments that change the color of the water.

- Much of the atoll is cultivated for coconut oil. Unlike many islands in Polynesia, the people of Maiao decided not to embrace tourism as a major component of their economy. There is no landing strip, and the island can only be reached by a long ferry ride from Tahiti. The landing wharf appears near the northern tip of the atoll, while a road circles most of the island.

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Figure 20: The tiny Society Islands stand out as land oases amid the largest expanse of water on Earth. The astronaut photograph ISS065-E-156801 was acquired on July 3, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 1150 millimeters. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 65 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)

• February 5, 2022: Scientist, engineer, test subject and tradesperson – astronauts in orbit wear many different hats. In this 360° timelapse, ESA astronaut Matthias Maurer works to repair a faulty valve behind EXPRESS-Rack 3. 22)

- Water On-Off Valve 8 (WOOV-8), along with WOOV-6 and WOOV-7, determines whether the cooling water of Europe’s Columbus module flows through, or bypasses, the heat exchange system that transfers waste heat to downstream cooling circuits outside the International Space Station. The valve has been a problem child for ground teams and astronauts for the past few years and was first replaced during a complicated operation in 2013.

- It was last replaced by ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet in October 2021, but continued issues led Matthias to try out a reserve valve to see if an unplanned conversion was possible. The operation was successfully completed on the real WOOV-8 in December 2021, and all involved breathed a sigh of relief.

Figure 21: Performing maintenance and repair tasks in weightlessness is especially difficult as astronauts have the added challenge of trying to hold themselves in position while turning a screw or securing a hatch. Watch Matthias carefully fold down the rack, set-up lighting and complete the task as you explore his workspace in 360º (video credit: ESA/NASA)

- Matthias was launched to the International Space Station for his Cosmic Kiss mission on 11 November 2021. He will spend approximately six months living and working in orbit, supporting over 35 European and many more international experiments on board.

• January 30, 2022: A medley of lights greeted astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) as they looked toward eastern Asia and the Korean Peninsula in October 2021. Lightning flashed among the clouds in the distance, and the glow of human activity emanated from the land and sea surfaces. Heavily populated urban centers were particularly radiant, with Seoul, Vladivostok, and Tokyo each measuring a factor of 27 or more above natural sky brightness. (Note that their brightness in this photo is affected by cloud cover and by relative distance from the ISS.) 23)

- This photograph also contains another source of human-created light: fishing boats trawling the shallow waters of the Yellow Sea. Several marine species are attracted to light, so nighttime fishing is often aided by the use of high-powered floodlights to improve the catch. The floodlights also make the boats visible from space. While some individual fishing boats can be identified in the photo, others are grouped so densely that they can almost appear as bright as urban centers on land.

- Autumn is peak season for Yellow Sea fisheries, where more than 1,600 fishing vessels are detected on an average night. The sea is fished for a variety of species, including hairtail and anchovies.

- The region is divided into separate Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), which are claimed extensions of a country’s borders into the ocean. According to one study, China may draw as much as 20 percent of its fish production from the Yellow Sea.

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Figure 22: This astronaut photograph ISS066-E-25062 was acquired on October 30, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 28 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 66 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Alex Stoken)

• January 29, 2022: Spaceflight participants Yusaku Maezawa and Yozo Hirano and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin were welcomed to the International Space Station on 8 December 2021 for a 12 day stay in space. Experience their arrival and farewell in 360° as captured by ESA astronaut Matthias Maurer from within the Russian segment. 24)

Figure 23: Also seen in this video are Expedition 66 Commander Anton Shkaplerov, Roscosmos cosmonaut Pyotr Dubrov and NASA astronauts Mark Vande Hei, Raja Chari, Tom Marshburn, and Kayla Barron (video credit: ESA/NASA)

- Matthias was launched to the International Space Station for his six-month ESA mission known as Cosmic Kiss on 11 November 2021. During his time on board, he will support around 35 European and many more international experiments in orbit.

• January 24, 2022: You’ve heard of spacewalking astronauts but how do astronauts run? Join ESA’s Matthias Maurer for a workout on the International Space Station’s T2 treadmill and explore Node 3 in 360°. 25)

Figure 24: Astronauts living and working on the International Space Station exercise for around two hours a day six days a week to stay fit and healthy in orbit. This helps counteract muscle and bone loss caused by life in microgravity (video credit: ESA/NASA)

- The T2 treadmill is attached to the wall in Node 3 and astronauts secure themselves using a harness and bungies. This creates a feeling like running on a treadmill on Earth. This clip is just a snapshot of the exercise Matthias performs in space. A typical T2 session is around 30-40 minutes in length.

- Matthias was launched to the International Space Station for his current Cosmic Kiss mission on 11 November 2021. In his approximately six months on board, he will support over 35 European experiments and many more international experiments in orbit.

• January 23, 2022: While passing over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in January 2020, an astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) looked southwest and shot a photograph of glacial lakes near the Himalayan mountain range. Sitting just northeast of Mount Everest, Lake Puma Yumco and Yamdrok Lake were frozen at the time. 26)

- Glacial runoff fills these lakes, which are vital for life in the small villages along their shores. For people in one such village, Tuiwa, the winter ice cover on Puma Yumco creates a walkable surface for herding sheep across to areas where more forage is available.

- Puma Yumco and Yamdrok are just two of the many glacial lakes across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which spans 2.5 million km2 (approximately 965,000 square miles). With an average elevation of 4500 meters (14,800 feet) above sea level, the plateau is one of Earth’s highest geographic features and often called the “roof of the world.”

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Figure 25: The astronaut photograph ISS061-E-145772 was acquired on January 26, 2020, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 210 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 61 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Amber Turner)

• January 18, 2021: These photographs record almost two decades of growth and decline at the Toshka Lakes, a chain of lakes in southern Egypt’s New Valley. All three images were taken by astronauts from orbit on the International Space Station, but each was taken with a different camera and slightly different focal length. 27)

- The lakes are natural depressions in the Sahara Desert that are filled by overflow from Lake Nasser, the enormous 550 kilometer-long (340-mile) reservoir built on the Nile River. A small arm of Lake Nasser appears in the 2021 image (far right of Figure 28).

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Figure 26: The rise and fall of Toshka Lakes depend on multi-year fluctuations in the flow of the Nile. The lakes were full in 2002 after the Nile experienced several years of high floods (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory)

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Figure 27: By 2012, the lakes had mostly dried up due to low flow in the river. In subsequent years (2017 and 2018, not pictured), the lakes shrank even more, leaving only small remnants of water in the western basins (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory.)

- Starting in 2019, summer rainfall in Sudan and South Sudan was abundant enough to raise the water level in Lake Nasser, which allowed the eastern Toshka basin to start filling. In 2020 record-breaking floods occurred in Sudan, resulting in the highest water level ever recorded in Lake Nasser. Again in 2021, Sudanese floods approached record levels. The result was rapid filling of the Toshka Lakes.

- The November 2021 photo (Figure 28) shows the lakes with more water than ever before. It also indicates that new lakes have formed in depressions to north and south of the eastern basin. The area of the original lakes even expanded slightly above levels seen in 2001. Areas under cultivation also have expanded greatly in the 19 years since the first photo.

- The ambitious Toshka Lakes project was designed to provide irrigation for new agricultural developments, and to attract people to the region and away from the dense populations of the Nile Valley itself. The project was also intended to protect the Aswan High Dam, the wall that impounds a vast volume of water. Damage or collapse of the dam by overfilling of Lake Nasser would be catastrophic for Egypt’s populations downstream. Overfilling can result from sustained high rainfall in the upstream countries, or from water releases from dams in Sudan and Ethiopia during flood events.

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Figure 28: This astronaut photograph ISS066-E-91633 was acquired on November 30, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 70 mm. Astronaut photograph ISS031-E-148455 was acquired on June 21, 2012, with a Nikon D2Xs digital camera using a focal length of 14 mm. Astronaut photograph ISS005-E-13562 was acquired on September 11, 2002, with a DCS760C digital camera using a focal length of 80 mm. All photos were provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The images were taken by members of the Expedition 66, Expedition 31, and Expedition 5 crews. The images have been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)

• January 16, 2022: Timelapse video made during ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet’s second mission to the International Space Station, “Alpha” around 4 November 2021. The camera was setup to take pictures at intervals of two a second, and the pictures are then edited into this video that plays at 25 pictures a second. The video is around 12 times faster than real speed. 28)

Figure 29: Thomas shared this video on social media explaining that the pictures were taken from the docked Crew Dragon spacecraft windows and it was the strongest aurora the crew had seen during their six months in space (video credit: ESA/NASA)

- Over 200 experiments were conducted during Thomas’ time in space, with 40 European ones and 12 new experiments led by the French space agency CNES.

• January 9, 2022: Join ESA astronaut Matthias Maurer inside Kibo, the Japanese laboratory module of the International Space Station in 360°, setting up Astrobee robotic free-flyers for the ReSWARM (RElative Satellite sWArming and Robotic Maneuvering) experiment. The robotics demonstration tests autonomous microgravity motion planning and control for on-orbit assembly and coordinated motion. 29)

Figure 30: This investigation aims to test coordination between multiple robots, robots and cargo, and robots and their operating environment as developers envision the future of autonomous robot operations in space (video credit: ESA/NASA)

• January 9, 2022: While the people of the Pacific Northwest were waking up to freshly fallen snow, an astronaut photographed this sunrise view of the state of Washington (United States) and the province of British Columbia (Canada). Cities, towns, and islands around the Salish Sea were blanketed in snow. Clouds and mountain peaks were illuminated by the rising Sun’s warm hues. 30)

- Winter had officially arrived that week in the Pacific Northwest, with temperatures in some areas dipping to 17° Fahrenheit (-8.3° Celsius) and setting new record lows. The blast of cold and snow followed several rainy fall months.

- In the photo, various hues of grey and white provide an outline for the rivers, city grid structures, and coastlines. The Olympic and Coast Mountains bracket the urbanized area, with darker mountain valleys standing out against the snow.

- Haro Strait acts as a boundary between Washington’s San Juan Islands and the mostly cloud-covered Vancouver Island of Canada. This major shipping channel connects the Strait of Georgia and Strait of Juan de Fuca, both of which are part of the Salish Sea. Puget Sound leads south to the Seattle area (just out of the frame). These water bodies help support local and international economies by providing trading access for various goods and tourist attractions such as whale watching.

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Figure 31: This astronaut photograph ISS066-E-98996 was acquired on December 29, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 78 millimeters. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 66 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Sara Schmidt)

• January 1, 2022: Experience an orbital badminton match on the International Space Station ISS in 360° as ESA astronaut Matthias Maurer challenges his crewmates and Japanese spaceflight participants Yusaku Maezawa and Yozo Hirano. 31)

Figure 32: Together with Roscosmos cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, the Japanese spaceflight participants joined the current Expedition 66 crew for a short-term stay of 12 days on the ISS. While their stay on the ISS focuses on scientific and operational activities, the astronauts on board the Space Station also enjoy recreational activities that provide an important balance for the crew and offer opportunities for intercultural exchange and team building (video credit: ESA/NASA)

- Matthias was launched to the International Space Station on Crew Dragon Endurance as part of Crew-3 at 02:03 GMT/03:03 CET Thursday 11 November 2021. His ESA mission on board is known as Cosmic Kiss and will see him live and work for approximately six months in orbit.

• December 19, 2021: An astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) snapped this photograph of a portion of the Paraná River, the second longest river in South America. It flows mostly northeast to southwest for approximately 4,880 km (3,030 miles), passing through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina and making part of the Argentina–Paraguay border. 32)

- This image captures some of the interlocking, braided patterns that are common along the Paraná River system. Sediment that eroded upstream from riverbanks in Brazil was carried downriver and deposited and piled up into islands—such as Isla Apipé (Argentina). The sediments also make braid bars, which are smaller, rhomboid-shaped landforms created by the interweaving of water and land as the river level rises and falls over time.

- This labyrinth of braided channels also provides routes for small boats and ships, allowing for the transport of goods to inland South America—at least as far upstream as the Yacyretá Dam. Built to generate hydroelectric power, the dam now separates the upper Paraná River from the braid bars.

- Farmers cultivate crops such as coffee, corn, and cotton in fields adjacent to the Paraná River floodplain. These crops, among others, have been affected by ongoing drought conditions that began in the region in 2020 and have slowed the transport of goods decrease in water levels.

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Figure 33: The astronaut photograph ISS065-E-163199 was acquired on July 9, 2021, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a focal length of 200 mm. It is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 65 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Amber Turner)


1) ”Karst and Colors on the Yucatán Peninsula,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 8 May 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149809/karst-and-colors-on-the-yucatan-peninsula

2) ”Change and Preservation Around Paranapanema,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 24 April 24 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149745/change-and-preservation-around-paranapanema

3) José C. Stevaux, Débora P. Martins, M. Meurer, ”Changes in a large regulated tropical river: The Paraná River downstream from the Porto Primavera Dam, Brazil,” ScienceDirect, Volume 113, Issues 3–4, 15 December 2009, Pages 230-238, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.03.015

4) Marc Garcia, ”Cosmonauts Complete Spacewalk to Set Up Robotic Arm,” NASA Space Station, 18 April 2022, URL: https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/2022/04/18/cosmonauts-complete-spacewalk-to-set-up-robotic-arm/

5) ”Brahmaputra River, Northeast India,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 17 April 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149729/brahmaputra-river-northeast-india

6) ”Matthias's first spacewalk | Cosmic Kiss,” ESA Science & Exploration, 14 April 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2022/04/Matthias_s_first_spacewalk_Cosmic_Kiss

7) ”Watercolors of Torrevieja,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 10 April 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149682/watercolors-of-torrevieja

8) ”Eye on world health,” ESA Science & Exploration, 07 April 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2022/04/Eye_on_world_health

9) ”Algeria’s Tassili n’Ajjer National Park,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 3 April 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149657/algerias-tassili-najjer-national-park

10) Joshua Finch, Gina Anderson, Dan Huot, ”Record-Setting NASA Astronaut, Crewmates Return from Space Station,” NASA Press Release 22-031, 30 March 2022, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/record-setting-nasa-astronaut-crewmates-return-from-space-station-0

11) ”Close-Up of Mount Everest,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 26 March 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149632/close-up-of-mount-everest

12) ”San Luis Valley,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 20 March 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149599/san-luis-valley

13) Nathan Cranford, Jennifer L. Turner, ”Record-Breaking NASA Astronaut Mark Vande Hei's Contributions to Human Research Studies,” NASA Feature, 15 March 2022, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/record-breaking-nasa-astronaut-mark-vande-heis-contributions-to-human-research-studies

14) ”NASA astronaut answers social media questions about record breaking spaceflight,” youtube, 15 March 2022, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u3IDh4LSGAM

15) ”Segments of the International Space Station,” ESA Science & Exploration, 01 March 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Revised_flight_plan_brings_change_for_Samantha

16) ”Keeping it fluid(ics) | Cosmic Kiss 360º,” ESA Science & Exploration, 28 February 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2022/02/Keeping_it_fluid_ics_Cosmic_Kiss_360

17) ”The Spine of South Island,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 26 February 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149512/the-spine-of-south-island

18) ”Cloudscape at Dawn, Northwest Atlantic,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 21 February 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149490/cloudscape-at-dawn-northwest-atlantic

19) ”Heart-shaped Oasis,”NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 14 February 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149451/heart-shaped-oasis

20) ”We explore - you benefit: Health, food, and climate,” ESA Science & Exploration, 11 February, 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2022/02/We_explore_-_you_benefit_Health_food_and_climate

21) ”Maiao Atoll, Polynesia,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 6 February 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149424/maiao-atoll-polynesia

22) ”Space repairs in 360º | Cosmic Kiss,” ESA Science & Exploration, 5 February 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2022/02/Space_repairs_in_360_Cosmic_Kiss

23) ”Yellow Sea Night Lights,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 30 January 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149388/yellow-sea-night-lights

24) ”Hello and goodbye in 360º | Cosmic Kiss,” ESA Science & Exploration, 29 January 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2022/01/Hello_and_goodbye_in_360_Cosmic_Kiss

25) ”Fitness in 360º | Cosmic Kiss,” ESA Science & Exploration, 24 January 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2022/01/Fitness_in_360_Cosmic_Kiss

26) ”Winter on the Roof of the World,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 23 January 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149356/winter-on-the-roof-of-the-world

27) ”Two Decades of Change at Toshka Lakes,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 18 January 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149334/two-decades-of-change-at-toshka-lakes

28) ”Crown aurora borealis,” ESA Science & Exploration, 16 January 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2022/01/Crown_aurora_borealis

29) ”Astrobee robots in 360º | Cosmic Kiss,” ESA Science & Exploration, 9 January 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2021/12/Astrobee_robots_in_360_Cosmic_Kiss

30) ”Snowy Scene Surrounding the Salish Sea,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 9 January 2022, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149305/snowy-scene-surrounding-the-salish-sea

31) ”Orbital Badminton in 360º | Cosmic Kiss,” ESA Science & Exploration, 01 January 2022, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2021/12/Orbital_Badminton_in_360_Cosmic_Kiss

32) ”The Braided Paraná,” NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for 19 December 2021, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/149225/the-braided-parana


The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates (herb.kramer@gmx.net).

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